What about the Dinosaurs? Dinosaurs for Dummies

Copyright © Dinosaurs for Dummies - 2014 - 2019

Home     Key Thoughts     Evidence      Why     Contact

Evidence Index     Dinosaur Links     Sea Captains     The Bible     Dragon or Dinosaur?

Greek Historian     Josephus     Roman Historian     John of Damascus     Apollonius

Marco Polo     Ulysses     Welsh Dragons     Leviathan     Fire Breathing Dinosaurs

Part of the Here Lies the Truth Project Full Evidence Article

Witness from a Royal Navy Captain

To falsify a ship's log would cause a captain to face court-martial, the loss of his career, reputation and pension, and cause great trouble to the crew members judged complicit in the deceit.

Declassified files recently released from the National Archives indicate that huge sea serpents were a fact of life for mariners. This account is taken from a captain of the Royal Navy. It.is in no sense legendary and comes from the 19th century. This sea-serpent was seen close to the island of St Helena on May 9, 1830 by the crew of the Rob Roy. Its captain, James Stockdale recorded the encounter in his official log.

“About five p.m. all at once while I was walking on the poop my attention was drawn to the water on the port bow by a scuffling noise. Likewise all the watch on deck were drawn to it. Judge my amazement when what should stare us all in the face as if not knowing whether to come over the deck or to go around the stern, but the great big sea snake! Now I have heard of the fellow before, and I have killed snakes twenty-four feet long in the straits of Malacca, but they would go in his mouth. I think he must have been asleep for we were going along very softly two knots an hour, and he seemed as much alarmed as we were and all taken aback for about fifteen seconds. But he soon was underway and, when fairly off, his head was square with our topsail and his tail was square with the foremast....My ship is 171 feet long overall and the foremast is 42 feet from the stern which would make the monster about 129 feet long. If I had not seen it I could not have believed it but there was no mistake or doubt of its length, for the brute was so close I could even smell his nasty fishy smell....When underway he carried his head about six feet out of water – with a fin between the shoulders about two feet long. I think he was swimming about five miles an hour – for I watched him from the topsail yard till I lost sight of him in about fifty minutes. I hope never to see him more. It is enough to frighten the strong at heart.”

Witness from the Bible

Behemoth - Huge Dinosaur described in the Bible

According to dictionary definitions Behemoth means a beast of oppressive size and enormous power. In another sense it is used to describe a vast corporation or organisation. In the Bible it is found in Job chapter 40.

“Look at Behemoth, which I made along with you and which feeds on grass like an ox. What strength it has in its loins, what power in the muscles of its belly. Its tail sways like a cedar; the sinews of its thighs are close-knit. Its bones are tubes of bronze, its limbs like rods of iron. It ranks first among the works of God, yet its Maker can approach it with his sword. The hills bring it their produce, and all the wild animals play nearby. Under the lotus plants it lies, hidden among the reeds in the marsh. The lotuses conceal it in their shadow; the poplars by the stream surround it. A raging river does not alarm it; it is secure, though the Jordan should surge against its mouth. Can anyone capture it by the eyes, or trap it and pierce its nose?"

Every word, whether it be realistic or poetic is descriptive of a gigantic creature who fulfills the meaning of the word behemoth: which most experts suggest means colossal beast.

The book of Job was written between 4000 and 3500 years ago. You could argue that biblical commentaries have got it right in describing Behemoth as either an elephant or a hippo, as both are very large and also herbivores. This book of Job demonstrates that its writer understands the animal world very well. And yet if behemoth was an elephant or a hippo then what explanation is there for this colossal beast's tail being described as moving like a cedar. In the bible the cedar tree is a byword for grandeur. The movements of their branches would be a natural likeness to that of creatures such as a Diplodocus or Argentinosaurus.

The image below gives a good idea of the scale of Sauropods

Witness of a Greek Historian

Greek Historian - Herodotus - “Father of History”

Accounts of Winged Dinosaurs in Arabia

Herodotus was a Greek historian who lived between 484 BC-425 BC. He has been called the "Father of History" since he was the first historian known to collect his materials systematically, test their accuracy to a certain extent and arrange them in a well-constructed and vivid narrative.

(Before continuing it should be noted that the words dragon and serpent were used routinely in all the ancient accounts relating to the sighting of strange and monstrous creatures. This practice continued into the mid nineteenth century. The word “dinosaur” was first introduced in 1842 by the founder of the Natural History Museum Richard Owen)

He writes:

‘I went once to a certain place in Arabia, almost exactly opposite the city of Buto, to make inquiries concerning the winged serpents. On my arrival I saw the back-bones and ribs of serpents in such numbers as it is impossible to describe: of the ribs there were a multitude of heaps, some great, some small, some middle-sized. The place where the bones lie is at the entrance of a narrow gorge between steep mountains, which there open upon a spacious plain communicating with the great plain of Egypt.

The story goes that with the spring the winged snakes come flying from Arabia towards Egypt, but are met in this gorge by the birds called ibises, which forbid their entrance and destroy them all. The Arabians assert, and the Egyptians also admit, that it is on account of the service thus rendered that the Egyptians hold the ibis in so much reverence. The winged serpent is shaped like the water-snake. Its wings are not feathered, but resemble very closely those of the bat. And thus I conclude the subject of the sacred animals.’

The History of Herodotus Provided by the Internet Classics Archive. online/ Translated by George Rawlinson Chapter XIIII.

So what might these creatures have looked like? Maybe something like the pterodactyl like creature illustrated below.

It is called Ramphorhynchus. The largest of these are thought to be four feet long and have a wingspan of six feet. The smallest had a wingspan of 290 millimetres. They were predatory and had twenty teeth in their upper jaws and fourteen in the lower. There are a number of accounts of creatures like these. And in attack mode they must looked like incoming darts.

The witness of Herodotus is confirmed by the first-century A.D. Jewish historian Josephus.

He wrote about Moses and the Israelites having a difficult time passing through a particular region because of the presence of flying reptiles.

The Dart like creature is Ramphorhynchus


Witness of Josephus

Flying Serpents 2:10:2:245-246

‘For when the ground was difficult to be passed over, because of the multitude of serpents, (which it produces in vast numbers, and, indeed, is singular in some of those productions, which other countries do not breed, and yet such as are worse than others in power and mischief, and an unusual fierceness of sight, some of which ascend out of the ground unseen, and also fly in the air, and so come upon men at unawares, and do them a mischief...'

'...Moses invented a wonderful stratagem to preserve the army safe, and without hurt; for he made baskets, like unto arks, of sedge, and filled them with ibes, and carried them along with them; which animal is the greatest enemy to serpents imaginable, for they fly from them when they come near them; and as they fly they are caught and devoured by them, as if it were done by the harts; but the ibes are tame creatures, and only enemies to the serpentine kind: but about these ibes I say no more at present, since the Greeks themselves are not unacquainted with this sort of bird. As soon, therefore, as Moses was come to the land which was the breeder of these serpents, he let loose the ibes, and by their means repelled the serpentine kind, and used them for his assistants before the army came upon that ground.'

Pliny the Elder: who is my next witness adds support to the above accounts. He described a supposedly mythical creature as follows: "The jaculus darts from the branches of trees; and it is not only to our feet that the serpent is formidable, for these fly through the air even, just as though they were hurled from an engine." In other words like a spear from a siege engine, the bolts of which are shown below.

Witness of the Roman Historian Pliny the Elder.

Accounts of Dragons and Serpents

The Natural History is an encyclopaedia published circa AD 77-79 by Pliny the Elder. It is one of the largest single works to have survived from the Roman Empire to the modern day and purports to cover the entire field of ancient knowledge, based on the best authorities available to Pliny. The work became a model for all later encyclopaedias in terms of the breadth of subject matter examined, the need to reference original authors, and a comprehensive index list of the contents. The work is dedicated to the emperor Titus, son of Pliny's close friend, the emperor Vespasian, in the first year of Titus's reign. It is the only work by Pliny to have survived and the last that he published, lacking a final revision at his sudden and unexpected death in the AD 79 eruption of Vesuvius.

Here is Pliny on dragons and serpents.

'In Ethiopia there be as great dragons bred, as in India, namely, twentie cubites long (35ft). But I marvel much at this one thing, why king Iuba should thinke that they were crested. They are bred most in a country of Ethiopia, where the Asachæi inhabited. It is reported, that upon their coasts they are enwrapped four or five of them together, one within another, like to a hurdle or lattice work, and thus passe the seas, for to find better pasturage in Arabia, cutting the waves, and bearing up their heads aloft, which serve them in steed of sailes.'

Chapter XIIII.

Of monstrous great serpents, and namely of those called Boae.

'Megasthenes writeth that there are Serpents in India which grow to such a Size that they are able to swallow Stags or Bulls whole. Metrodorus saith that about the River Rhyndacus, in Pontus, there are Serpents which catch and devour the Fowls of the Air as they fly over them, however high or rapid their Flight may be. It is well known that Regulus, Imperator during the Wars against the Carthaginians, near the River Bograda assailed Serpent with his Military Engines, the Balistae and Tormentum, as he would have done to a Town...

Illustration below: a horse drawn ballistae.

...and when Subdued, the Length of the Serpent was found to be 120 Feet. The Skin and Jaws of this Serpent were preserved in a Temple at Rome until the War of Numantia. And this is rendered the more credible from the Serpents that we see in Italy that are called Boae, which increase to such Size, that in the Days of the Prince Dlvus Claudius there was one of them killed in the Vatican, within the Belly of which there was found an Infant Child...’

The Witness of John of Damascus

Account of Roman Army killing 120 foot long Dinosaur

John of Damascus, an eastern monk who wrote in the 8th century, gives a sober account of dragons, insisting that they are mere reptiles and did not have magical powers. He quotes of the Roman historian Dio who chronicled the Roman Empire in the second century. It seems Regulus, a Roman consul, fought against Carthage, when a dragon suddenly crept up and settled behind the wall of the Roman army. The Romans killed it, skinned it and sent the hide to the Roman Senate. Dio claimed the hide was measured by order of the senate and found to be one hundred and twenty feet long. It seems unlikely that either Dio or the pious St. John would support an outright fabrication involving a Roman consul and the Senator.

According to this the Roman historian Dio quoted by John of Damascus confirms that of Pliny's account, which must be of the same incident.

Greek Traveller and Philospher -  Apollonius of Tyana

Accounts of Dragon Hunts in India

What follows are the writings of Lucius Flavius Philostratus, a Greek sophist. He wrote about the life and travels of Apollonius. Philostratus is a writer quoted by the historian Tom Holland in his BBC TV programme Dinosaurs Myths and Monsters. Holland is an evolutionist and quoted Philostratus from his writing about the travels and opinions of Apollonius to strengthen his argument: which was that early man only knew of dinosaurs (dragons and serpents) from the discovery of their bones. Presumably Holland regards Philostratus as a reliable witness. Why quote him if he does not. However Holland failed to relate any of the following; probably because this account by Apollonius is fatal to Holland's main contention: man and dinosaurs never co-existed.

The following is quoted from the Life of Apollonius of Tyana: by Philostratus {220 AD}

On the Existence of Dragons.

Venetian Explorer -  Marco Polo

Graphic Accounts of Dragon Hunts in China

He writes:

Of the Province Named Karazan

Leaving the city of Yachi and travelling ten days into a westerly direction, you reach the Province of Karazan which is also the name of its chief city… Here are seen huge serpents, ten paces in length and ten spans in the girt of the body. At the fore-part, near the head, they have two short legs, having three claws like those of a tiger, with eyes larger than a four penny loaf and very glaring. The jaws are wide enough to swallow a man, the teeth are large and sharp and their whole appearance is so formidable, that neither man, nor any kind of animal, can approach them without terror. Others are met with a smaller size, being eight, six or five paces long; and the following method is used for taking them: In the day-time, by reason of the great heat, they lurk in caverns, from whence, at night, they issue to seek their food and whatever beast they meet with and can lay hold of, whether tiger, wolf, or any other, they devour; after which they drag themselves towards some lake, spring of water, or river, in order to drink. By their motion in this way along the shore, and their vast weight, they make a deep impression, as if a heavy beam had been drawn along the sands.

Those whose employment it is to hunt them observe the track by which they are most frequently accustomed to go, and fix into the ground several pieces of wood, armed with sharp iron spikes, which they cover with the sand in such a manner as not to be perceptible. When therefore the animals make their way towards the places they usually haunt, they are wounded by these instruments and speedily killed. The crows, as soon as they perceive them to be dead, set up their scream; and this serves as a signal to the hunters, who advance to the spot and proceed to separate the skin from the flesh, taking care immediately to secure the gall, which is most highly esteemed in medicine. In cases of the bite of a mad dog, a pennyweight of it, dissolved in wine, is administered. It is also useful in accelerating parturition, when the labour pains of women have come on. A small quantity of it being applied to carbuncles, pustules or other eruptions on the body, they are presently dispersed; and it is efficacious in many other complaints. The flesh of the animal is also sold at a dear rate, being thought to have a higher flavour than other kinds of meat and by all persons it is esteemed a delicacy."

Marco Polo also reported that on special occasions the royal chariot was pulled by dragons and in 1611 the Emperor appointed the post of a “Royal Dragon Feeder”.

Witness of Ulysses Aldrovandus

Father of Modern History

Ulysses Aldrovandus is considered by many to be the father of modern natural history. He travelled extensively, collected thousands of animals and plants, and created the first ever natural history museum.  His impressive collections are still on display at the Bologna University (the world’s oldest university) where they attest to his scholarship. His credentials give credence to an incident that Aldrovandus personally reported concerning a dragon.

The dragon was first seen on May 13, 1572, hissing like a snake. It had been hiding on the small estate of Master Petronius. At 5:00 PM, the dragon was caught on a public roadway by a herdsman named Baptista, near the hedge of a private farm, a mile from the remote city outskirts of Bologna. Baptista was following his ox cart home when he noticed the oxen suddenly come to a stop. He kicked them and shouted at them, but they refused to move and went down on their knees rather than move forward. At this point, the herdsman noticed a hissing sound and was startled to see this strange little dragon ahead of him. Trembling he struck it on the head with his rod and killed it. (Aldrovandus, Ulysses, The Natural History of Serpents and Dragons, 1640, p.402.)

Aldrovandus surmised that dragon was a juvenile, judging by the incompletely developed claws and teeth. The corpse had only two feet and moved both by slithering like a snake and by using its feet, he believed. (There are small two-legged lizards that do this today.) Aldrovandus mounted the specimen and displayed it for some time. He also had a watercolour painting of the creature made.

Both Marco Polo and Aldrovandus speak of dragons having just two feet and dragging themselves along, their locomotion being a combination of squirming like a snake aided by added propulsion from their feet. No-one in their right senses would make up such a creature if they cared about being believed. But, as an aside, there is a remarkable collection called the Acambaro dinosaur figurines. There are thousands of them depicting various dinosaurs, large and small and of great variety some even interacting with humans, including this one, with just two feet.

There is in my opinion good reason to think these are genuine, of good age and created by a native people who had both seen and lived alongside dinosaurs.

Predictably evolutionists rubbish the entire story and question the dating of these figurines; stating that dating results render these figurines irrelevant and just modern fakes. A website titled Bad Archaeology ridicules it all and includes an image of the Acambaro figurine with its two legs. They show in order to prove how detached from good science the Acambaro collection is. And yet, having read the preceding two articles, are you certain the anonymous native Mexican carver got it so very wrong?

A case of truth being stranger than fiction perhaps?

This second report of a sea-monster sighting has been declassified at an official level by the British Government.

It describes an 1857 encounter that also occurred in the vicinity of the island of St. Helena. The following is from Commander George Henry Harrington.

Commander Harrington's ship Castilian is pictured on the right.

“While myself and officers were standing on the lee side of the poop looking toward the island, we were startled by the sight of a huge marine animal which reared its head out of the water within twenty yards of the ship when it suddenly disappeared for about half a minute and then made a reappearance in the same manner again, showing us its neck and head about ten or twenty feet out of the water....Its head was shaped like a long buoy and I should suppose the diameter to have been seven or eight feet in the largest part with a kind of scroll or ruff encircling it about two feet from the top. The water was discoloured for several hundred feet from the head, so much so that on its first appearance my impression was that the ship was in broken waters, produced, as I supposed, by some volcanic agency, since I passed the island before....But the second appearance completely dispelled those fears and assured us that it was a monster of extraordinary length and appeared to be moving slowly towards the land. The ship was going too fast to enable us to reach the masthead in time to form a correct estimate of this extreme length, but from what we saw from the deck we conclude that he must have been over two hundred feet long. The Boatswain and several of the crew, who observed it from the forecastle, state that it was more than double the length of the ship, in which case it must have been five hundred feet”

Once again it is reasonable to ask whether or not a witness like Commander Harrington is anything less than about the most convincing of any that could be imagined.

Witness from the Patron Saint of Greenland

Encounter with a Plesiosaur like Sea Serpent

The story to come is narrated by an eye witness and has none of the characteristics of a myth or legend. I have found two accounts of this incident both attributed to the missionary and patron saint of Greenland: Hans Egede.

The first account quoted in Wikipedia is as follows:

‘Hans Egede describes of a sea serpent. On 6 July 1734 his ship sailed past the coast of Greenland when suddenly those on board.’… “Saw a most terrible creature, resembling nothing they saw before. The monster lifted its head so high that it seemed to be higher than the crow's nest on the mainmast. The head was small and the body short and wrinkled. The unknown creature was using giant fins which propelled it through the water. Later the sailors saw its tail as well. The monster was longer than our whole ship."

Year: 1734 Scientist/artist: Hans Egede. This second account has slight variations, almost certainly the same story being told to a different audience.

"On the 6th of July 1734, when off the south coast of Greenland, a sea-monster appeared to us, whose head, when raised, was on level with our main-top. Its snout was long and sharp, and it blew water almost like a whale; it has large broad paws; its body was covered with scales; its skin was rough and uneven; in other respects it was as a serpent; and when it dived, its tail, which was raised in the air, appeared to be a whole ship's length from its body."

The descriptions above come close to describing a plesiosaur with complete accuracy. The detail of large broad paws / giant fins, which are characteristic of plesiosaurs, is a confirmation that this was more than likely a real event. There are various forms of plesiosaurs, short necked and long necked.

From Egede's illustration he seems to have encountered the short necked plesiosaur.

A long necked plesiosaurus is shown below. Imagine the impact the sighting of a creature like this would have on a ship’s crew.

Witness from the 17th century

Accounts of Flying Dragons like Pterosaurs in Galmorgan, Wales

There are ‘Reliable witness reports of "flying dragons" (pterosaur-like creatures) in Europe are recorded around 1649. (Thorpe, B. Ed., the Anglo Saxon Chronicle)

 "The woods around Penllyn Castle, Glamorgan, had the reputation of being frequented by winged serpents, and these were the terror of old and young alike. An aged inhabitant of Penllyn, who died a few years ago, said that in his boyhood the winged serpents were described as very beautiful. They were coiled when in repose, and "looked as if they were covered with jewels of all sorts. Some of them had crests sparkling with all the colours of the rainbow". When disturbed they glided swiftly, "sparkling all over," to their hiding places. When angry, they "flew over people's heads, with outspread wings, bright, and sometimes with eyes too, like the feathers in a peacock's tail". He said it was "no old story invented to frighten children", but a real fact. His father and uncle had killed some of them, for they were as bad as foxes for poultry. The old man attributed the extinction of the winged serpents to the fact that they were "terrors in the farmyards and coverts."

The reason given for the hunting down of these creatures is so normal and practical that it adds credence to the account: “causing terror in the farmyards and coverts.”

A practice of hunting only recently stopped in the UK in relation to another menace of the farmyards: the fox.

Source / w:en:Image: Destruction of Leviathan.png. Author / Gustave Doré (1832–1883)   

God says:

"Can you pull in Leviathan with a fishhook or tie down its tongue with a rope? Can you put a cord through its nose or pierce its jaw with a hook.  Will it keep begging you for mercy?

Will it speak to you with gentle words? Will it make an agreement with you for you to take it as your slave for life? Can you make a pet of it like a bird or put it on a leash for the young women in your house? Will traders barter for it? Will they divide it up among the merchants? Can you fill its hide with harpoons or its head with fishing spears? If you lay a hand on it, you will remember the struggle and never do it again! Any hope of subduing it is false; the mere sight of it is overpowering. No one is fierce enough to rouse it. Who then is able to stand against me? Who has a claim against me that I must pay? Everything under heaven belongs to me. “I will not fail to speak of Leviathan’s limbs, its strength and its graceful form. Who can strip off its outer coat? Who can penetrate its double coat of armour? Who dares open the doors of its mouth, ringed about with fearsome teeth? Its back has rows of shields tightly sealed together; each is so close to the next that no air can pass between. They are joined fast to one another; they cling together and cannot be parted. Its snorting throws out flashes of light; its eyes are like the rays of dawn. Flames stream from its mouth; sparks of fire shoot out. Smoke pours from its nostrils as from a boiling pot over burning reeds. Its breath sets coals ablaze, and flames dart from its mouth. Strength resides in its neck; dismay goes before it. The folds of its flesh are tightly joined; they are firm and immovable. Its chest is hard as rock, hard as a lower millstone. When it rises up, the mighty are terrified; they retreat before its thrashing. The sword that reaches it has no effect, nor does the spear or the dart or the javelin. Iron it treats like straw and bronze like rotten wood. Arrows do not make it flee; slingstones are like chaff to it. A club seems to it but a piece of straw; it laughs at the rattling of the lance. Its undersides are jagged potsherds, leaving a trail in the mud like a threshing sledge. It makes the depths churn like a boiling caldron and stirs up the sea like a pot of ointment. It leaves a glistening wake behind it; one would think the deep had white hair. Nothing on earth is its equal - a creature without fear. It looks down on all that are haughty; it is king over all that are proud.”

If you have read carefully up to now you will have picked up similarities in this biblical account to those of others. Remember this one predates every other account with the exception of Behemoth which comes from the same source: the Book of Job.

Source: Sascha Kozacenko, with kind permission for GFDL. Author Sascha Kozacenko

As a few of the above accounts tell how some of these creatures, including Leviathan, breathed fire, it is necessary to make some comments as to its feasibility. All that is needed is some highly combustible material, a means of igniting it, and a means of expelling it.

To the evolutionist the small problem of igniting a fire should be one of the easier to solve. The raw material is present in virtually every dinosaur of moderate size. Large animals which consume huge amounts of food, especially herbivores and omnivores create highly combustible gases. This they routinely expel into the atmosphere, some of it being breathed out as a burp, or as Leviathan, snorted out through the mouth or nostrils, or possibly as Apollonius suggests, from beneath the crest. All that is required to ignite this gas is a spark.

According to evolutionary theory ‘Mother Nature’ has produced innumerable exquisite mechanisms to suit almost any and every need. At the Nano-technology level, protein machines: ATP synthase is a motor without which life could not have generated or evolved. At the macro level look at any of the major functions of the human body: locomotion, sight, speech, the immune system, the brain and the heart etc. All of these and thousands of other solutions to mechanical problems are attributed to the evolutionary process.

With regard to dinosaurs I think most scientists recognise that media programmes depicting dinosaur behaviour, colouration, appearance and habits are highly speculative. Only so much can be deduced from the actual evidence available. Some basic questions have not yet been conclusively answered; for instance which dinosaurs were warm-blooded and which cold-blooded. There are also many theories concerning the respiratory systems used by these creatures. If the producers of these programmes read some of the historians of antiquity they may get closer to the truth. They will not do so of course because this would be an admission that could never be uttered, written or broadcast: a confession that dinosaurs and humankind co-existed in the recent past.

Imagine if you will a dinosaur, probably an herbivore or omnivore that exhales methane gas through an adaption embedded within a crest. This crest provides tubes or passage-ways for the release of air into the atmosphere. A mechanism that created a spark, when combined with methane could produce a flame thrower effect, providing both a defence system and a spectacular mating display.

The hadrosaurs are certainly one group of dinosaurs that has this crest with the passage ways in situ. So is this speculation really an outrageous fantasy?

It is important to realise that far more animal types have passed into extinction than those we see and know today. Dinosaurs are just one of those groups that have passed away. As a consequence exactly how they operated and functioned is largely unknown. A fire breathing dragon is in essence no more amazing than some of the creatures we know to exist in our age. What might have existed in a previous age will almost certainly be quite as astonishing as anything we see today. Fire-breathing may be just one of thousands of mechanisms lost to nature’s storehouse of miracles during the course of extinctions.

Apollonius speaks in a straight-forward manner. He just relates what he has seen. If you read his works you will find him scoffing at myths and much else besides. He is an intelligent and pragmatic witness to the age in which he lived. And in that age he observed creatures unlike anything you and I have seen other than in books, and hadrosaurs are good examples. They had crests on their skulls which have unexplained nasal passages that seem unrelated to the sense of smell.

‘Scientists were struck by this dinosaur's amazing crest, believing it exemplifies a radical evolutionary departure in the geometry of dinosaur heads. The nose bone moved to the top of the head, extending the nasal passage up the face and emerging above the eyes. It is the arrangement of the naris and nasal passages that has caused scientists to speculate that this dinosaur could trumpet! The specimen is a eight metre long juvenile, so perhaps the skull crest was even more spectacular in fully grown adults, which paleontologists have estimated could reach lengths of 11 metres or more.’

Amazingly Apollonius, who according to evolutionary theory could have known nothing about these creatures, is quoted as saying the following:

‘…and from their crests, which are all fiery red there flashes a fire brighter than a torch.’

Dinosaurs with crests.

‘The most striking aspect of the new dinosaur is its large, complex, and fragile cranial crest that runs from its nose to the back of its head - which also gives its name. Guanlong is the only species of tyrannosaur known to have such a crest. Scientists can only speculate on the function of the exaggerated ornament. "It seems paradoxical that this predatory (group of animals) possessed a seemingly delicate, highly pneumatised cranial crest," Xing's team writes in its report on the findings, published today in Nature.

The most probable idea is that it may have served to attract mates. Below is a crested

carnivore, the twenty foot long Dilophosaurus.

This terrifying creature is known to have inhabited India, the very place where Apollonius observed fire-breathing dinosaurs. The question is, can it be possible that these creatures used those nasal passages for the purposes of fire-breathing, as well as those already suggested? I believe the answer is yes.

Here is just one plausible solution to the problem. I searched the Internet for means of igniting methane and found the following. It relates to an examination of how and why fires or explosions begin during the collapse of mine roofs, tunnels and shafts.

'When a large area of open gob collapses suddenly, a windblast is produced that can cause considerable damage throughout the infrastructure of a mine. In a few cases, the windblast has been accompanied by ignitions of methane and/or coal dust. Analytical and numerical analyses investigated the transient behavior of the air through the small time period during which the roof is falling. This is sufficiently short to allow adiabatic compression of the air, i.e. negligible heat transfer to rock surfaces. Controlled escape of the air via interconnecting entries limits the build- up of air pressure. However, this same phenomenon causes the potential energy of the falling strata to be concentrated into a diminishing mass of air. Computer simulations predicted that the temperature of the air would increase rapidly as the roof descends, reaching values that are capable of igniting either methane or coal dust.

This thesis concentrates on a series of laboratory tests involving the compression of

mixtures of air, methane and coal dust under a falling weight and while allowing controlled escape of the mixture.'

The Ignition of Methane and Coal Dust by Air Compression - The Experimental Proof

By Wei Lin / Master's Thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Virginia Tech....

If this process of igniting methane can occur under accidental conditions whereby air is compressed and forced through escape channels, then why could not the same occur in a designed system. The effect: something akin to a controlled sneeze in a creature as large as a dinosaur could surely cause the same kind of ignition effect as that described above. Assuming scientists are correct in thinking that these cranial crests were used for trumpeting, then large volumes of air must have been forced through these channels at great speed? This would create a similar effect to the one described above, and possibly an even more efficient way of igniting methane gas. In other words a design feature, similar to all those found in so many diverse creatures: the electric eel and bombardier beetle, to name but two. If this were so then the proliferation of stories relating to fire-breathing would be no more strange than other accounts from travellers, that upon first hearing seemed unlikely in the extreme, but which were later proved to be accurate.

There are many other sources of Internet information, including the contents of out of print books describing many accounts of well verified sightings of these creatures over the last few centuries. There are also other forms of evidence from all over the globe: the Acambaro dinosaur figurines, Ica stones, petragraphs and other stories, carvings and images etc.

This concludes my study into whether humans and dinosaurs co-existed.

All of the above matters greatly to evolutionists, since their theory depends on a vast span of time separating humankind from dinosaurs. If these creatures actually were as diverse and as common just a few hundreds, or thousand years ago, as the above witness statements infer then evolutionary theory will implode under the pressure of too little time. Darwin's theory requires hundreds of millions of years of slow and gradual change. The separation of 60 million years between dinosaurs and Homo sapiens gave evolutionists a comfort zone. But if the sea captains Stockdale and Harrington saw what they claimed to see, and Apollonius truly watched a dinosaur hunt in India then Darwin's theory is in need of serious revision.

Radio-metric dating is either correct, proving dinosaurs became extinct 65 million years ago, or the monsters once known as dragons and serpents were still around as our contemporaries just a few hundred years ago. This would prove radio-metric dating methods false. What is preferable, the witness of real people: some of them eye witnesses, or a science based on numerous unproved and un provable assumptions. It is important to recognise this fact: evolution is a dead in the water if long ages are denied to it. I think the above evidence, if accepted as convincing, goes some way to proving that evolutionary theory is based on a false premise and is unsustainable in its present form, and probably in any form.

Witness of Leviathan

Job 41

The tails of all Sauropods are of this type, massive, and they must have swayed like the branches of huge trees. The tails of elephants and hippos by contrast are puny and insignificant. Despite their size and power, the only part of their impressive frames you would not pick out for special attention would be their tails. Look at the Sauropods, these herbivores and first among God's creation. Which part of their anatomy would you draw special attention to if you wanted to state just how magnificent they are? "Its tail sways like a cedar," as a description of either an elephant's tail or hippo's is just absurd.

God speaks to Job of a creature Job must have seen. He speaks of a massively impressive animal. Greater than every other, a standout animal. How else would the argument made by God have made its impact?

'Now as they descended the mountain, they say they came in for a dragon hunt, which I must needs describe. For it is utterly absurd for those who are amateurs of hare-hunting to spin yarns about the hare as to how it is caught or ought to be caught, and yet that we should omit to describe a chase as bold as it is wonderful, and in which the sage (Apollonius) was careful to assist; so I have written the following account of it: The whole of India is girt with dragons of enormous size; for not only the marshes are full of them, but the mountains as well, and there is not a single ridge without one. Now the marsh kind are sluggish in their habits and are thirty cubits long, (45 feet) and they have no crest standing up on their heads, but in this respect resemble the she-dragons. Their backs however are very black, with fewer scales on them than the other kinds; and Homer has described them with deeper insight than have most poets, for he says that the dragon that lived hard by the spring in Aulis had a tawny back; but other poets declare that the congener of this one in the grove of Nemea also had a crest, a feature which we could not verify in regard to the marsh dragons.

Apollonius of Tyana

And the dragons along the foothills and the mountain crests make their way into the plains after their quarry, and prey upon all the creatures in the marshes; for indeed they reach an extreme length, and move faster than the swiftest rivers, so that nothing escapes them. These actually have a crest, of moderate extent and height when they are young; but as they reach their full size, it grows with them and extends to a considerable height, at which time also they turn red and get serrated backs. This kind also have beards, and lift their necks on high, while their scales glitter like silver; and the pupils of their eyes consist of a fiery stone, and they say that this has an uncanny power for many secret purposes. The plain specimen falls the prize of the hunters whenever it draws upon itself an elephant; for the destruction of both creatures is the result, and those who capture the dragons are rewarded by getting the eyes and skin and teeth. In most respects they resemble the largest swine, but they are slighter in build and flexible, and they have teeth as sharp and indestructible as those of the largest fishes.'

The journeys of Marco Polo in China date back to the early 1290s. He was the first Western traveller to write about the various provinces of Burma (Mien) in what is present-day China. Marco Polo returned to Venice in 1295 and his famous journals started circulating in Europe by 1298. The following comments were translated by W. Marsden in 1818 and re-edited by Thomas Wright in 1854.

The Chinese Zodiac

Marco Polo must have seen many images of the Chinese Zodiac. Having read the following you may understand why the Chinese depict the animals that feature on their zodiac. Eleven of them are well known: nothing mythological in sight until the twelfth, which is a dragon. Could this be because the dragon was as real to them as the monkey and the rat.

Marco Polo

Witness of another Sea Captain

Fire Breathing Dinosaurs?

Looking at some of the Evidence

Final Thoughts